Theory is "Discrepancy between expected and experienced
physical sensations (what is felt seen, heard, tasted, and
smelled) during a threatening experience will result in
The middle range
nursing theory by Jean Johnson indicates that affective and
psychomotor knowledge and preparation prior to threatening
events such as surgery increases cooperation and decreases
anxiety about those events. For the quality outcome of
decreased anxiety to occur, however, the nurse in practice,
must apply the key elements of the middle range theory (e.g.
preoperative teaching is specific to and congruent with the
actual experience of the patient).
As a surgical
nurse, Dr. Jean Johnson "had a hunch" that patient’s distress
during and after surgery or invasive procedures could be
reduced by patient teaching. There was no research indicating
what kind of teaching would reduce anxiety, and information
can make some patients fearful and more anxious. She wanted a
better way to calm the patient who fears the worst and went on
to much more: Innovation in patient-teaching techniques
Jean Johnson, PhD,RN,FAAN
Emerita of Nursing. University of Rochester, New York.
Studies and their Hypotheses
by Jean Johnson, RN, PhD,
University of Kansas.
J. Johnson. Module A.
University of Kansas School of
“Placebo responses by patients can result from suggestions
made by nurses.” She explains that nurses can foster
beneficial placebo effects.
Jeffrey Zurlinden, RN, MS, ACRN
based on the research of Jean Johnson, PhD, RN, which indicates
that distress during a threatening event is
Research Highlights Oncology Nursing Society. Pittsburgh.
Guidelines for Quality Research Proposal University of